Gilt leather was one of the most fashionable and costly types of wall hanging in the western world in the 16th to 18th centuries. It consists of a leather substrate, often embossed with several decorative surface layers composed of animal glue, silver leaf, egg white, and a yellow colored lacquer – creating the golden appearance – one or more paint layers and occasionally a varnish layer. Conservation of gilt leather is a challenge due to the complex nature of the material. Aging processes and earlier conservation treatments using oils and wax have resulted in the silver tarnishing and the degradation of paint and varnish layers, causing a matte and dark appearance that reduces legibility. This project aims to understand the complex characteristics of gilt leather, its material dynamics and interactions with past and present conservation materials. It will do so by using advanced non-destructive testing instrumentation, something that has been done very rarely for this type of material. The results of the project will be used to develop new strategies for the conservation of gilt leather.